The ancient hurch of St James in the village of Little Clacton, which features in my novel The Undeparted Dead. It has changed hardly at all since Mariana’s time.
In this short extract from The Undeparted Dead, Mariana, who has just had all her hair cut off and her head shaved (scraped!) by the local hangman, and spent the last few hours locked in the pillory (like the girl in the picture above, only as I say Mariana had had her head shaved first) reflects that people in a cage-coffin or on a scaffold or even in her position, in the pillory, become invisible once the excitement is over.
More time passed. Another hour? I had no idea.
Lady Helen and Barbara and the two men came out. They mounted their horses, Barbara deep in conversation with Lionel, and rode off the way they had come.
Not even a glance in my direction.
Without my hair, I was no longer a person, just a thing, like part of the pillory. When a person was in the process of being hanged or caged, that was interesting. But when you passed by a silent scaffold or cage on the roadside, did you notice whether it was bare and empty or bore a shrivelled, blackened thing that once had been a person?
At least I hadn’t been shut in a cage high up in the air and left to die. Though I could easily have been hanged for stealing that gold anklet. I was lucky there, and had Barbara to thank. How many times now had she saved my life? And how would I ever repay her?
Ah! Here came Blanche!
But she walked straight past just like the others had. And her men followed her.
“Many-towered Camelot” Tennyson called it:
All in the blue unclouded weather
Thick jewell’d shone the saddle-leather,
The helmet and the helmet-feather
Burn’d like one burning flame together,
As he rode down to Camelot.
Who was “he”? Lancelot, of course, darling of the ladies – in this case the unfortunate Lady of Shalott. And what or where was “Camelot”?
I am, at least by birth, a West Country man (I was born in Bournemouth, which was at that time in Hampshire) but I have to say at once (and risk offending an awful lot of people) that the claims of South Cadbury “Castle” on Cadbury hill to be the site of the City of Camelot are the least well-founded of all. Excavations there have revealed Iron Age earthworks and superimposed on them a substantial fifth or sixth-century fortress or redout with walls composed of wooden stakes. Inside was a small village of wattle-and-daub huts. There are the remains of some stone walls and the foundation trenches of what seems to be a small cruciform church that was never actually built, but these belong to the time of the “abortive burh” of Ethelred the Unready, who set up a fortified mint there at the beginning of the eleventh century and then abandoned it; maybe it was abandoned when Canute succeeded Ethelred as King.
Camelot? I don’t think so.
On the dust jacket of Alistair Moffat’s Arthur and the Lost Kingdoms, I found the following remark, which is very much to the point: “Historians have failed to show convincingly that King Arthur existed, for a good reason: they have been looking in the wrong place, in Wales or the West of England.”
We must look elsewhere.
Carlisle is the choice of Norma Lorre Goodrich, author of two very original books, namely Guinevere and King Arthur. While I suspect that Modred (and maybe even Arthur himself) was half-Pictish, I cannot go along with her location of the whole saga in northern Scotland. Alistair Moffat (quoted above) is another supporter of the Scottish claims; however, he places Arthur and company in southern Scotland among the P-Celtic (i.e. Welsh)-speaking Gododdin and locates Camelot at Roxburgh, with its great castle, outside Kelso in the Border Country. “In a brilliant campaign, fought mostly in Scotland, Arthur defeated the Picts to the north and the Angles to the south. He halted the tide of invasion for a generation and gave Celtic Britain a breathing space to regroup and for parts of it to survive.”
Now the problem here is that Arthur was not fighting the Picts and the Northern Angles, who were anyway at war with each other. His enemies were the Saxons and Southern Angles who were spreading like a pest over south-eastern England.
I agree that Wales and the west of England is the wrong place to look. I suspect that Scotland is also the wrong place.
We need to look in the east, where the invaders were to be found in strength. Only there would defeating them have had any real purpose or effect; anywhere else would have been mere skirmishes. At the Battle of Badon, fought in 516 or 518, Arthur defeated a great army of Saxons. They were driven back, and as a result large areas were cleared of Saxon settlers for at least as long as Arthur was Guledig (War Lord and de facto High King). But what large areas exactly?
Only one historian has really addressed this question: John Morris, in his magisterial three-volume work The Age Of Arthur.
In Vol I, Roman Britain and the Empire of Arthur, he tells us that after the Battle of Badon, the population of certain areas such as Essex, “was either removed or subjected to such great restraints that it was unable to bury its dead with normal grave goods or in normal cemetaries.” The evidence for this is that while in Kent, for instance, and Suffolk and Norfolk, burials continued from the fifth century into the sixth century without interruption, in Essex there were fifth-century and later-sixth-centrury burials but no evidence of burials during the early sixth century. Norma Lorre Goodrich is quite wrong when she says, in King Arthur, that “Arthur could not have won his battles in England, because [historians] know from the several manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle that the Saxons conquered England in King Arthur’s lifetime and that it has been English territory ever since” as though they never lost a battle, never suffered any setbacks. In fact, as Geoffrey Ashe points out in The Quest For Arthur’s Britain, “The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, while it ignores the Anglo-Saxons’ defeats, sheds a little light by the petering out of their victories. […] Archaeology is consistent with a major Saxon retreat early in the sixth century …”
On the subject of the site of Camelot, John Morris points out in The Age Of Arthur that many places “preserve in recognisable form the names they bore in Roman times” (e.g. Londinium – London, Lindum – Lincoln, Glevum – Gloucester), and continues: “A similar origin must be sought for Camelot, represented as among the most important of several cities where Arthur held court. Nearly all the others were large towns of Roman Britain, Chester, York, Gloucester and others, set down in their medieval spelling. Camalot, the more usual early form of the name, is therefore plainly a medieval spelling of the Latin name of a large Roman town in Britain. The only town with such a name is Camulodunum, Colchester. [In Essex.]
“Colchester had obvious advantages as a political centre in reconquered Britain. It was well sited to observe and to intimidate the two most formidable English territories, East Anglia and Kent. Easy roads linked it with the British north and west; and shipping from its harbours might reach Europe without approaching too closely the coast of English Kent …”
And so it is Colchester/Camulodunum that I take to be Camelot in my novels The Undeparted Dead and (the forthcoming) Colum’s Day. This is Blanche (in The Undeparted Dead) speaking of Merlin:
‘This is the very area in which Arthur and Merlin flourished. Forget all that nonsense about Camelot being somewhere on the Scottish border or in Scotland, or over in the west of England, near Avalon. Camulodunum, the city of Camulos, a Celtic god, which Arthur knew as Camelot, lay in the heart of the territory occupied by the invaders, the Angles of East Anglia and the Saxons of Essex and Middlesex and Sussex. This, the Deben, the Orwell, the Stour, the Colne, the Blackwater, the Crouch, the Thames itself, was where they were flocking in and had already settled in their tens of thousands during the misrule of Vortigern and Ambrosius Aurelianus. And it was from his fortress, his city, of Camelot, with its great Roman Walls – the walls we still see there today – that Arthur fought and overcame them and sent them fleeing back across the North Sea whence they came, not from the top of some bare hill hundreds of miles away. The forests and marshes around here were home to Merlin for many years, and the Island of Canvey, on the Thames estuary was his place of seclusion, his retreat …”
This map of medieval Colchester clearly shows the Roman Wall all round the city, as it would have been in Arthur’s time. And the photo below shows a section of that same wall, much of which is still standing today.
Mariana de la Mar 2 is out today on Kindle!
Mariana de la Mar, Book 2
Mariana continues her bawdy and frequently catastrophic career as a solver of mysteries, this time in England, where, having been recruited to a network of secret agents specialising in the occult, she takes on two of the Undead which infested the country, especially Essex, not only in the early Middle Ages but again in the 14th Century, in the wake of the Black Death.
“It would not be easy to believe that the corpses of the dead should sally (I know not by what agency) from their graves, and should wander about to the terror or destruction of the living, and again return to the tomb, which of its own accord spontaneously opened to receive them, did not frequent examples, occurring in our own times, suffice to establish this fact, to the truth of which there is abundant testimony.” He wrote this “as a warning to posterity” and added “were I to write down all the instances of this kind which I have ascertained to have befallen in our times, the undertaking would be beyond measure laborious and troublesome“. (William of Newburgh, a 12th-century English historian and Augustinian Canon of Anglo-Saxon descent from Bridlington, Yorkshire.)
It turns out that the mission involves going undercover as a prostitute (not difficult for her, given her experiences since she was sold as a sex-slave at the age of fourteen) but will she ever again be able to convince people that Mad Mariana the Spanish Whore and Lady Marian MacElpin are one and the same person?
Is magic fact or is it simply something we like to indulge in the concept of, to fantasise about in books such as those I write?
Much will depend on our definition of the word “magic”, our understanding of the mysterious and the miraculous. Is a mystery simply something we do not understand yet? Is a miracle a wonder that goes clear against the laws of nature – or one that merely seems to go against the laws of nature because we do not yet fully understand those laws?
Our answers will be dictated to some extent by our personal preferences. Some people wish to believe, others refuse to, no matter what the evidence. This latter group includes, of course, the kind of doctor who dismisses even homeopathy as absurd because it cannot be explained, only witnessed; the kind of scientist who refused to attend the first flight by a heavier-than-air vehicle, the first demonstration of television. On the other hand, those who wish to believe are only too likely to be taken in by charlatans. We must, then, try to approach the subject with an open mind.
Colin Wilson did so in The Occult.
In Part One, he introduced the concept of “Faculty X”, “the latent power to reach beyond the present to other realities”. Part Two is a comprehensive history of magic, very relevant to our needs on this site, and in Part Three he has a long section on witchcraft and shape-shifting.
In Mysteries, he probed even deeper into the world of the paranormal, dealing with phenomena such as dowsing and divination, and explaining the views of Jung, Ouspensky, William James and Aldous Huxley, as well as those of poet/mystics Blake, Yeats and (a favourite of mine) F.W.H. Myers.
Finally, twenty years later, in Beyond The Occult, he demonstrated that “the world picture of the modern occultist is as consistent and comprehensive as that of the scientist”.
All three books highly recommended to those seriously interested in investigating the fact behind the fantasy.
Witches and Witchcraft
As we have seen, Wilson discusses witchcraft in The Occult, but for those who wish to go deeper into the subject there is Julio Caro Baroja’s classic work The World of the Witches.
This book focuses principally on Spain (where “witches were condemned to be burnt as early as AD 943”) but it covers the growth and understanding of witchcraft in the Middle Ages throughout western Europe and gives a fascinating “in-depth account of the crisis of witchcraft in the Basque country at the time of the Spanish Inquisition.”
Among other subjects he discusses is man’s innate fear of the power women have over them (what we see for instance in the myth of Circe), and the mysogyny not only of the Christian world (Eastern at least as much as Western) but also of medieval Judaism: “the authors of the Talmud,” he points out in commenting upon Exodus 22:18 (“Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live”), “frequently made statements like ‘Women are naturally inclined to witchcraft’, ‘the more women there are, the more witchcraft there will be’, ‘most women are witches’, and so forth.”
An important and thoughtful book in which every theory of witchcraft is considered.
Another gem is the Cassell Dictionary of Witchcraft, which is especially good on named witches (such as Gowdie, Isobel) and witchcraft in specific places, such as St Osyth. (St Osyth figures largely in Mariana 3, The Undeparted Dead.)
The Merlin-Gandalf archetype does seem to be a figure of fantasy. Yet how did it come to be an archetype? In prehistoric times, the mage-shaman-wizard, the outsider who understood and moved in the world of the spirits, must have occupied a key place in every society.
Magic for You
The best way of learning about a subect is to practise it. For those interested in exploring the subject for themselves, there is Julie Soskin’s Are You Psychic?
This wonderful – and beautifully illustrated – book contains sections (each with practical exercises) on, for instance, “Exerting Mind over Matter”, “Developing Clairvoyant Vision”, “Could You be a Shaman?” and “Amulets and Talismans”. Superbly produced and highly recommended. I loved it – and learnt more from it than from twenty other books. (Her website address is www.juliesoskin.com if you’d like to find out more.)